Chandrayaan 2: To Boldly Go Where No Man Has Gone Before

After a successful and ground breaking discovery made by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) through Chandrayaan mission. ISRO is taking another bold and ambitious step to land on South Polar region of the moon. It’s the first time any country is attempting to discover the mysteries of the darkest place found on moon. It’s a historical event and the first step towards exploring the undiscovered region of the moon.

In recent times, India has emerged to be a dominating factor and one of the torch bearers in space expeditions. India has from time to time proved each and every country on earth that space explorations can be carried out at a effectively, efficiently and at a  reasonable cost.

In this blog, I will try to tell everything that a person should know about Chandrayaan 2 mission:

Ever since, India made a ground breaking discovery of water on the surface of moon through Chandrayaan 1 – a new ideology or prespective of Moon among scientists and researchers have been developed. Chandrayaan 2 mission is being viewed as one of the most critical missions to unveil the mysteries of the moon and to provide an entirely new information regarding the early stages of our Solar System Development. It will also cause a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come, propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.


The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (GSLV Mk-III) alias “Bahubali” will carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. Chandrayaan-2 will be launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota onboard Bahubali, at 2:43 PM on 22nd July 2019.

It is worthy to mention here that GSLV Mk-III aka Bahubali is entirely Made in India, thus continuing the most renowned and ambitious “Make in India” project of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Shri. Narendra Modi.

To know more about GSLV Mk-III

The first 16 minutes 22 seconds shall be the one of the crucial phase of the mission. It is the time within which Bahubali shall carry Chandrayaan 2 in space and separation of Chandrayaan 2 from Bahubali.

Following is the flight sequence of the first 16 minutes 22 seconds:

Flight Sequence

Chandrayaan 2 is composed of an orbiter, a rover named as “Pragyan” and India’s first lander capable of executing a ‘soft landing’ called as ” Vikram”.


The Orbiter weights 2,392 Kg and has 1 year of mission life in lunar orbit.

It is capable of  communicating with the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu, as well as with the Vikram lander and thus will act as communicator between Vikram and Earth

Again it is worthy to mention that all the hardware in the form of Orbiter, Lander and Rover as well as sophisticated software used to run the hardware is totally “Made in India”, thus reducing dependence of ISRO on other countries space organizations like “NASA”,”Roscosmos” etc.

Vikram Lander

Vikram has a mission life of 1 lunar day which is equivalent to 14 Earth days.

It is also capable of communicating with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Pragyan rover. The lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface at a touchdown velocity of 2 metres per second.

The lander is expected to land at a High plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N

Pragyan can travel upto 500 metres at a speed of 1 centimetre per second. It is capable of communicating to lander and uses solar energy for its functioning

Chandrayaan 2 is carrying with it total 14 scientific experiment payouts. The name and function of that payout is given hereunder:

Chandrayaan 2 will land on Moon at Day 54 of the mission i.e. on 6th September 2019. The entire mission will cost about Rs.987 crore (i.e. approximately $ 144 million). Further, it is worthy to mention that 30% of the entire team composed of women which indicates a positive and proud sign of women empowerment in India.

Following are the 3 mission objectives of Chandrayaan 2:

  • Expand India’s footprint in space
  • Inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers
  • Surpass International Aspirations.

After providing all the information about Chandrayaan 2 mission, the only question that’s left to answer is “Why Moon is chosen?” “Is it a Race?”

The Answer is quite simple and a rational non-biased person can easily understand that Moon is the closest cosmic body where space discovery can be attempted and documented. In order to aim for further space exploration for e.g. Titan or even exo planets, one must have sufficient knowledge of space. I have not used word “complete”, since no one can possess complete information about space atleast in near future. The South polar region of space is a site which has remained untouched, and thus can answer many important questions about the early stages of our solar system. Thus, it was quite logical and rational step at least from space exploration perspective to explore the mysterious South polar region of space before trying to attempt any mission on our neighbouring planet i.e. Mars.

I hope that you like the above article, in case of any suggestion, feel free to give your feedback.


World War III: An Economy Annihilator

We all know about World War 1 and World War 2, the destruction that it has caused to life, property and mother nature is something that, no one has forgotten. The effects of the war is still seen. Today we are again on brink of war, a war of money rather than weapons, “Trade War”.

According to Wikipedia, “A trade war refers to two or more states raising or creating tariffs or other trade barriers on each other in retaliation for other trade barriers. Increased protection causes both nations’ output compositions to move towards their autarky position”. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade.

The world is on the brink of trade war, President Donald Trump announced on Thursday that he would impose tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese exports to the United States. Beijing quickly outlined new import taxes of its own on US products worth $3 billion.

The increasingly aggressive statement from both ends suggest that further escalation is possible: Trump described his actions targeting China as “the first of many,” while Beijing said “it is impolite not to reciprocate” and promised a “fight to the end.”

Some of the world’s top economists and business leaders were in Beijing for the annual China Development Forum, and one topic overshadowed the entire gathering: The looming threat of a trade war between the U.S. and China.

Nobel-prize winning economists Robert Shiller and Joseph Stiglitz were also at the annual meeting, and they predicted pain ahead for the U.S. economy if Beijing and Washington ramp up tit-for-tat trade penalties.

U.S. companies, Shiller warned, are not prepared to have China cut out of their supply chains or business models.

“The immediate thing will be an economic crisis because these enterprises are built on long-term planning, they’ve developed a skilled workforce and ways of doing things. We have to rediscover these things in whatever country after the imports are cut off,” Shiller told CNBC. “It’s just chaos: It will slow down development in the future if people think that this kind of thing is likely.”

Stiglitz, for his part, warned that China’s leaders are likely prepared to initiate tariffs based on “a very good economic map with which they will target certain places in the United States where the pain will be maximized.”

An escalating trade war, the Nobel laureate said, could have political ramifications for Trump — especially if trade partners’ retaliations hit the president’s base.

“If there is a broad range increase in tariffs, it would affect their cost of living, the inflation would lead the Fed to raise interest rates at a higher rate, it would certainly impose a risk to the return to the U.S. to robust economic growth,” Stiglitz said.


The beginning of the war has already started to have effects on world economy, China’s Shanghai Composite, Hong Kong’s Hang Seng, Japan’s Nikkei and Korea’s Kospi all plunged sharply up to 3 per cent. Indian indices declined over 1 per cent after China threatened to raise tariffs on about $3 billion of US imports. The Dow DJIA, -1.77%  dropped more than 700 points on Thursday and declined by more than 400 points on Friday, leaving the blue-chip gauge with a weekly drop of 5.7%. The S&P 500 SPX, -2.10%  dropped nearly 6% on the week – marking the biggest one-day percentage drop for both since early February.

Both the sides are not intending to stop, forcing other countries especially emerging country like India to choose side whereby taking the trade war to another level. Thus, all in all, Trade War is a condition which always happens around the world, the only problem is its extreme form, every country wants to promote its product and taxing import is not a bad thing, the only problem is the extent and fairness of taxing and not considering the situation and product on which taxes are enforced, thus unbalancing the dedicated thread of trust between the leaders and thereby deteriorating the economic condition.