Chandrayaan 2: To Boldly Go Where No Man Has Gone Before

After a successful and ground breaking discovery made by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) through Chandrayaan mission. ISRO is taking another bold and ambitious step to land on South Polar region of the moon. It’s the first time any country is attempting to discover the mysteries of the darkest place found on moon. It’s a historical event and the first step towards exploring the undiscovered region of the moon.

In recent times, India has emerged to be a dominating factor and one of the torch bearers in space expeditions. India has from time to time proved each and every country on earth that space explorations can be carried out at a effectively, efficiently and at a  reasonable cost.

In this blog, I will try to tell everything that a person should know about Chandrayaan 2 mission:

Ever since, India made a ground breaking discovery of water on the surface of moon through Chandrayaan 1 – a new ideology or prespective of Moon among scientists and researchers have been developed. Chandrayaan 2 mission is being viewed as one of the most critical missions to unveil the mysteries of the moon and to provide an entirely new information regarding the early stages of our Solar System Development. It will also cause a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come, propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.


The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (GSLV Mk-III) alias “Bahubali” will carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. Chandrayaan-2 will be launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota onboard Bahubali, at 2:43 PM on 22nd July 2019.

It is worthy to mention here that GSLV Mk-III aka Bahubali is entirely Made in India, thus continuing the most renowned and ambitious “Make in India” project of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Shri. Narendra Modi.

To know more about GSLV Mk-III

The first 16 minutes 22 seconds shall be the one of the crucial phase of the mission. It is the time within which Bahubali shall carry Chandrayaan 2 in space and separation of Chandrayaan 2 from Bahubali.

Following is the flight sequence of the first 16 minutes 22 seconds:

Flight Sequence

Chandrayaan 2 is composed of an orbiter, a rover named as “Pragyan” and India’s first lander capable of executing a ‘soft landing’ called as ” Vikram”.


The Orbiter weights 2,392 Kg and has 1 year of mission life in lunar orbit.

It is capable of  communicating with the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu, as well as with the Vikram lander and thus will act as communicator between Vikram and Earth

Again it is worthy to mention that all the hardware in the form of Orbiter, Lander and Rover as well as sophisticated software used to run the hardware is totally “Made in India”, thus reducing dependence of ISRO on other countries space organizations like “NASA”,”Roscosmos” etc.

Vikram Lander

Vikram has a mission life of 1 lunar day which is equivalent to 14 Earth days.

It is also capable of communicating with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Pragyan rover. The lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface at a touchdown velocity of 2 metres per second.

The lander is expected to land at a High plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N

Pragyan can travel upto 500 metres at a speed of 1 centimetre per second. It is capable of communicating to lander and uses solar energy for its functioning

Chandrayaan 2 is carrying with it total 14 scientific experiment payouts. The name and function of that payout is given hereunder:

Chandrayaan 2 will land on Moon at Day 54 of the mission i.e. on 6th September 2019. The entire mission will cost about Rs.987 crore (i.e. approximately $ 144 million). Further, it is worthy to mention that 30% of the entire team composed of women which indicates a positive and proud sign of women empowerment in India.

Following are the 3 mission objectives of Chandrayaan 2:

  • Expand India’s footprint in space
  • Inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers
  • Surpass International Aspirations.

After providing all the information about Chandrayaan 2 mission, the only question that’s left to answer is “Why Moon is chosen?” “Is it a Race?”

The Answer is quite simple and a rational non-biased person can easily understand that Moon is the closest cosmic body where space discovery can be attempted and documented. In order to aim for further space exploration for e.g. Titan or even exo planets, one must have sufficient knowledge of space. I have not used word “complete”, since no one can possess complete information about space atleast in near future. The South polar region of space is a site which has remained untouched, and thus can answer many important questions about the early stages of our solar system. Thus, it was quite logical and rational step at least from space exploration perspective to explore the mysterious South polar region of space before trying to attempt any mission on our neighbouring planet i.e. Mars.

I hope that you like the above article, in case of any suggestion, feel free to give your feedback.


FIFA World Cup 2018: A Roller Coaster ride

FIFA World Cup, an event, which every one in this planet looks forward to watch, irrespective of whether you are a football enthusiast or not. And this year’s edition is a revolutionary in nature. Even before the start of the event, there was news all over the world, when two well known teams i.e. Italy and Netherlands, did not qualify for the world cup.

Italy, four times world cup champions, for the first time missed to qualify for world cup, in over half a century. Whereas 2010 finalist, Netherlands, also missed to qualify after, missing to score seven goals against their match against Sweden.

Even post commencement, the event continued its surprise element and stunned the world, in the group stages, when Germany, defending Champions, trashed out of World Cup in group stages. The 2014 World Champions, were shocked and awe when they were defeated by South Korea, in the final group stage match.

Post Group Stages, Argentina, Spain, Portugal, Denmark were not able to qualify for quarter finals, thereby rejecting the predictions of many well known experts. The match of Belgium vs Japan, could be consider as one of the highlights of this year’s edition, whereby, no one was in a position to predict that Japan who were leading 2-0 till 68 minutes, would face 3-2 defeat against the iron will Belgium.

Just like a classic Alfred Hitchcock movie, no one would have predicted Brazil, the five times world cup champions and favorites for this year’s edition, would be defeated by a sheer clinical and close to perfect Belgium Team. Croatia, on the other hand is writing a new script in this edition, by defeating the strongest contenders and reaching Semi finals in almost heroic manner. Besides the dark horses, Teams like England and France have also their share of Joy. England fans, were given their team’s first world cup penalty shootout win. Whereas, France, gave heartbreak to Messi Fans by Trashing Argentina out of the World Cup and clinically defeating Uruguay to reach semis.

So, unlike many previous editions, this year’s world cup, has given us a trailer of New Era, an era of new heroes, an era of numerous possibilities and an era ending the dominance of South American Teams in World Cup.

4 match remains to be played to decide who will be the new Champions. France – Belgium and Croatia – England will fight each other on 10th and 11th July 2018 respectively, giving them a chance to fight for the Finals.

For more information on FIFA World Cup 2018 statistics, click on the following link:

FIFA World Cup 2018 statistics

For information on FIFA World Cup History, click on the following link:

FIFA World Cup



World War III: An Economy Annihilator

We all know about World War 1 and World War 2, the destruction that it has caused to life, property and mother nature is something that, no one has forgotten. The effects of the war is still seen. Today we are again on brink of war, a war of money rather than weapons, “Trade War”.

According to Wikipedia, “A trade war refers to two or more states raising or creating tariffs or other trade barriers on each other in retaliation for other trade barriers. Increased protection causes both nations’ output compositions to move towards their autarky position”. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade.

The world is on the brink of trade war, President Donald Trump announced on Thursday that he would impose tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese exports to the United States. Beijing quickly outlined new import taxes of its own on US products worth $3 billion.

The increasingly aggressive statement from both ends suggest that further escalation is possible: Trump described his actions targeting China as “the first of many,” while Beijing said “it is impolite not to reciprocate” and promised a “fight to the end.”

Some of the world’s top economists and business leaders were in Beijing for the annual China Development Forum, and one topic overshadowed the entire gathering: The looming threat of a trade war between the U.S. and China.

Nobel-prize winning economists Robert Shiller and Joseph Stiglitz were also at the annual meeting, and they predicted pain ahead for the U.S. economy if Beijing and Washington ramp up tit-for-tat trade penalties.

U.S. companies, Shiller warned, are not prepared to have China cut out of their supply chains or business models.

“The immediate thing will be an economic crisis because these enterprises are built on long-term planning, they’ve developed a skilled workforce and ways of doing things. We have to rediscover these things in whatever country after the imports are cut off,” Shiller told CNBC. “It’s just chaos: It will slow down development in the future if people think that this kind of thing is likely.”

Stiglitz, for his part, warned that China’s leaders are likely prepared to initiate tariffs based on “a very good economic map with which they will target certain places in the United States where the pain will be maximized.”

An escalating trade war, the Nobel laureate said, could have political ramifications for Trump — especially if trade partners’ retaliations hit the president’s base.

“If there is a broad range increase in tariffs, it would affect their cost of living, the inflation would lead the Fed to raise interest rates at a higher rate, it would certainly impose a risk to the return to the U.S. to robust economic growth,” Stiglitz said.


The beginning of the war has already started to have effects on world economy, China’s Shanghai Composite, Hong Kong’s Hang Seng, Japan’s Nikkei and Korea’s Kospi all plunged sharply up to 3 per cent. Indian indices declined over 1 per cent after China threatened to raise tariffs on about $3 billion of US imports. The Dow DJIA, -1.77%  dropped more than 700 points on Thursday and declined by more than 400 points on Friday, leaving the blue-chip gauge with a weekly drop of 5.7%. The S&P 500 SPX, -2.10%  dropped nearly 6% on the week – marking the biggest one-day percentage drop for both since early February.

Both the sides are not intending to stop, forcing other countries especially emerging country like India to choose side whereby taking the trade war to another level. Thus, all in all, Trade War is a condition which always happens around the world, the only problem is its extreme form, every country wants to promote its product and taxing import is not a bad thing, the only problem is the extent and fairness of taxing and not considering the situation and product on which taxes are enforced, thus unbalancing the dedicated thread of trust between the leaders and thereby deteriorating the economic condition.


Stephen Hawking: Death of an Immortal

Today, is one of the saddest day for everyone, our beloved Stephen Hawking had its last breath. Not only for me but for most of the people from all over the world, he is and always will be a role model.  Greatest physicist of all time, Visionary, inspirational and many other adjectives are and will always be used while saying few words about such a great personality.


Stephen William Hawking was a true fighter. To pay tribute to such a person, i am writing this blog, and can only try to give a glimpse of his personality to the readers.

Stephen Hawking was the former Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and author of A Brief History of Time which was an international bestseller. He was Director of Research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and Founder of the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge, his other books for the general reader include A Briefer History of Time, the essay collection Black Holes and Baby Universe and The Universe in a Nutshell.

And the biggest reason, why he is the greatest role model is that, he had achieved such great achievement, by facing the greatest challenges a person can face. In 1963, Hawking contracted motor neurone disease and was given two years to live. Yet he went on to Cambridge to become a brilliant researcher and Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. From 1979 to 2009 he held the post of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, the chair held by Isaac Newton in 1663. Professor Hawking has over a dozen honorary degrees and was awarded the Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1982. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the US National Academy of Science. Stephen Hawking is and will always be  regarded as one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein.



Few Achievements that shows the contribution made by our beloved:

Stephen Hawking along with English mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, did path-breaking work on singularities which proved their existence and theorized that the universe might have begun as a singularity. Their Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems attempt to answer when gravitation produces singularities.

With James Bardeen and Brandon Carter, Stephan Hawking discovered the four laws of black hole mechanics. These laws are physical properties that black holes are believed to satisfy and are analogous to the laws of thermodynamics. In January 1971, his essay titled “Black Holes” won the prestigious Gravity Research Foundation Award

Previously physicists believed nothing could escape a black hole. In 1974, Stephan Hawking showed that black holes emit radiation, which may continue till they exhaust their energy and evaporate. Stephen’s prediction of what became known as the Hawking radiation initially created a controversy but on further research was considered an important breakthrough in theoretical physics.

Introduced by Alan Guth in 1980, cosmic inflation is a theory in physical cosmology which proposes that following the Big Bang, the universe expanded exponentially before settling down to slower expansion. It is now widely accepted. Stephen Hawking was one of the first to calculate quantum fluctuations that were created during cosmic inflation and to show how they might give rise to the spread of galaxies in the universe.


Few Quotes made by him that changed the mindset of the society:

  • Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.
  • The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.
  • We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the Universe. That makes us something very special.
  • My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.
  • Life would be tragic if it weren’t funny.
  • I have no idea. People who boast about their IQ are losers.
  • People won’t have time for you if you are always angry or complaining.
  • We only have to look at ourselves to see how intelligent life might develop into something we wouldn’t want to meet,
  • Not only does God play dice, but… he sometimes throws them where they cannot be seen.

Stephen Hawking was a man of words, who would never take a break or relax until the task gets completed. Rest in Peace, and thanks for so many great discoveries and teaching us that limitation is only in the mind, and once its removed, sky is the limit.

For more information on the great visit or



Forged in Fire

Forged in Fire, is a show that airs on the History Channel. Its a competition between bladesmiths wherein they have to make an incredible powerful weapon within a given amount of time. The show has been a tremendous hit and i am a big fan of the show especially its concept, the different styles of blade, the different way of forging, the technical terms along with the explanation that they provide us during the show and the list goes on and on.

Winning Sword

Host and Judges:

The show is hosted by Wil Willis, who is an ex army ranger and ex air force pararescueman and has hands-on experience with a wide range of weapons in real battle situations. The show is judged by J.Neilson, Doug Marcaida, David Baker and Jason Knight. All the said names are considered experts or more like godly figure in bladesmithing.

J. Neilson has been making knives for 20 years and is one of the best all-round bladesmiths in the world. He was recognized in 2008 when he achieved the rank of Mastersmith in the American Bladesmith Society, a title held by less than 115 people worldwide

Doug Marcaida is an edged weapon combat specialist who also designs some of the world’s deadliest blades. Doug is a highly skilled martial artist who has also studied fighting styles and techniques around the world. From hand-to-hand combat to battlefield strategy, Doug is a walking encyclopedia in the evolution of weapons of war.

David Baker is a world-renowned swordsmith who specializes in recreating some of world’s rarest edged weapons. David is constantly challenging his scholarship of weaponry, researching forgotten techniques and examining world-class collections to ensure his replicas are as close to and as functional as the originals.

South Carolina’s sole Master Bladesmith, Jason Knight, has been making knives for 15 years. Considered by his peers as one of the most accomplished knife makers in the country, he has amassed numerous awards for his work, including the coveted B.R. Hughes Award for Best Blade by a Mastersmith. Jason employs only the finest materials and meticulous techniques to craft his signature knives, which are highly sought after by hunters, collectors and soldiers around the world.

Winning Sword(1)


The show comprises of 3 rounds, in the first round 4 bladesmiths are given different material from which they have to prepare a specific dimension of knife. For preparing the said knife, bladesmith are given 10 minutes of time for drawing and 3 hours to prepare the blade. The 2nd round comprise of making handle for the blade prepared in 1st round, for preparing the handle, bladesmiths are given 3 hours. After completing the blade by inserting a handle the blade is tested by ice chopping test, coconut cut test etc. After qualifying 2nd round, bladesmiths are asked to recreate an ancient weapon for which they are given 5 days. After several test, a person whose blade performs better, wins $10,000/- and the title of “Forged in Fire Champion”

Purpose of the Show:

The main purpose of the show is to promote bladesmithing. The show provides great intrinsic knowledge of what is meant by bladesmithing, and what are the challenges faced by bladesmithing. I have personally watched each and every episode that is aired. By watching this show, i came to know different types of blade like bowie knife, japanese katana, Chakara, Khopesh, Khanda, Scottish Claymore, Hunga Manga and many other, i also came to know different types of steel used to make blade such as Damascus, 1024 Steel, leaf steel etc., different ways of forging such as water forging, sand forging, oil forging etc., different problems that can emerged while creating a blade such as delamination, cracks, etc.

I have written about the show because i personally feel that a bladesmith is not paid and respected the way they should be. The effort they put by turning a scrap into a beautiful knife is extraordinary. And it is the only show which makes us aware about it and in a way gives respect to bladesmith. I hope that after going through above detail you would be tempted to watch the show. And Finally please, give your comment of what do you think about the show.